There was a time, not so long ago, when non leather materials used in fashion, were simply called by their name – polyurethane (PU), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cork, waxed cotton etc. As time has gone on, more people have become aware of the enormous environmental impact the mass breeding, raising + slaughtering of animals has on the world. Additionally, there are grave concerns for health of humans + of course, animal welfare, which is often hidden from the eyes of the consumer.
Plant based diets have been embraced as a result of this increased education, and people are looking for fashion that does not use animal products. The use of the term ‘vegan leather’ has increased, based on an overall consumer awareness, and a desire amongst brands, to give a name to their quality items, that evokes a mood of luxury versus the no-frills terms of PU, PVC etcetera. Vegan leather provides a broad brushstroke term for brands to use, to identify their non animal derived materials to the conscious consumer. For the record, we choose to stick to the relatively unsexy term - Eco PU, versus vegan leather, which simply means the polyurethane coated fabric we use, is made with non toxic levels of chemicals, does not produce dioxins + adheres to both REACH + Prop65 standards. However, for the purpose of this article, we recognise that vegan leather is a much used term, and we're aware there is sometimes confusion in the market, regarding the term.
In order to understand what is termed as vegan leather – let’s start from the beginning, to understand why a substitute for animal derived leather would even be desired or required. There are a few reasons.
Environmental concerns. 60% of the worlds leather comes from developing countries where environmental laws are not as strict as developed countries. Chemicals used in the cleaning / tanning process + runoff into public waterways is hazardous for local communities + people who work or live close to these industries. 90% of the world’s hides are chrome tanned, and this is known to be negative for the environment (and requisite human impact). Chrome tanning allows colour consistency for the finishing of the hide, which makes it commercially popular - however it does not easily biodegrade. Additionally, the amount of water used for animal agriculture is enormous, and as a finite resource, this is detrimental to humans' capacity to access fresh water. You can read more about this issue here. 1 in 9 people across the planet lack access to clean water - as animal agriculture grows in the world (for profit) this will become a profound issue for humanity.
- Animal welfare issues. The more footage that becomes available to the public relating to how animals are treated in their lives, and in the slaughter process, the greater the interest in non leather options in the fashion + food space. Many shut their eyes to this - I know I did, for most of my life - however the reality cannot be denied, it's an appalling existence for billions of animals on this planet. This is not just related to cows – but sheep, pigs, alligators, crocodiles, snakes, horses + more. As a result of greater education, a desire for cruelty free collections is growing.
- Global warming + CO2 emissions. Leather has a high carbon footprintwith CO2 emissions of leather, including cattle farming being 110 KG of CO2 per square metre of leather, and another 17KG of CO2 after the slaughterhouse process (ie when it moves from a hide to finished leather) per square metre of leather. It’s impossible to not count the environmental impact of animal agriculture when assessing leather’s impact – hence the high total emission number of 127 KG of CO2 per square metre of leather. Artificial leather is 15.8KG of CO2 emissions per square metre of fabric. Given ‘artificial leather’ is a broad term, one can assume that this number will go up slightly + down slightly, depending on the actual raw material being used.
- Cost. Historically, non leather options that emulate the look + feel of leather, have been used to reduce cost in the manufacturing process. This has changed over the years, as non leather options have improved with greater research + development, and requisite costs have increased. Additionally, the amount of low priced leather has increased – handbags + shoes are big business internationally - with the resultant outcome being a variety of low, mid + high priced options in both leather + non leather options.
If any of these issues rate as important to the consumer, alternatives are sought. But what are these alternatives? They are increasing as R+D builds in the raw material space. Here is our (non exhaustive) list of what’s available on the market now, in varying levels of commercialisation.
Polyurethane (PU) – there are plenty of options in colour, texture + price variation. Polyurethane is also a coating used on some plant based faux ‘leathers’ to give robustness + longevity. It is considered the greener option when compared to PVC, as it does not create dioxins.
PolyVinylChloride (PVC) – the least environmentally ‘friendly’ fabric in the mix. One of the perceived benfits in fashion terms, is that PVC is low priced. It also delivers the 'clear/see through' fashion trend for a low cost.
Pinatex – a fabric that has a substrate made from the felting of pineapple fibres. The substrate can be used on its own, which is where the catchcry ‘my bag is made from pineapples’ emanates; however more commonly used in fashion, are the Pinatex fabric offerings that have a polyurethane coating, that provides the material with water resistance + longevity.
Image credit @Pinatex + @Rombautofficial exhibition
‘Sustainable Thinking’ at the@ferragamo Museum in Florence
Image Credit @Desserto.Pelle
Desserto Pelle – relatively new players on the non leather scene, the founders of Mexico based, Desserto Pelle have engineered a fabric that utilises the dried leaves of cactus, as the key building block for adding to a fabric base. The biomass (dried/ground cactus) is mixed with a water based polyurethane + pigments, to form the surface treatment for the substrate fabric, often being cotton or cotton/polyester.
Apple– along the same lines as the Desserto Pelle material, PAQ however, use apple waste instead of cactus. Polyurethane is still involved in the process, to ensure the fabric is robust.
Mango – this innovative business behind Fruitleather Rotterdam, have created a fabric that utilises fruit waste from the food industry to great effect. The material is not waterproof as it stands, it must have a wax coating applied post production. The sheets are relatively small at 60cm x 40cm, when compared to the ongoing meterage one can buy in polyurethane fabrics, however this is entirely workable for small scale pattern pieces.
Cork – one of the lowest intervention plant based materials on the market it seems, as the cork is literally harvested (with great skill + a machete) from the cork oak tree, boiled, shaved + then attached to a substrate, before a sealant is applied to the surface for added durability. The tree re-grows the bark + can be harvested again in approximately 9-10 years.
Mylo - Mushroom derived material, by Bolt Threads. Using the underground root structure of mushrooms, Bolt Threads have developed mycelium cells to create a supple, biodegradable + (animal) suffering free, alternative to leather.
Lab grown leather – the team at Modern Meadow have been working on bringing biotechnology to the material space. Using lab grown proteins to create the building blocks from which their materials are created.
Cork fabric swatches, image credit danandmez.com
The listed materials are at various stages of commercialisation – pricing + scale is still a challenge for the accessibly priced market, in some instances – and more will no doubt come to market as demand increases. The luxury + big business fashion space have tended to lead the way in these fabrics, based on their large resources (and often having exclusivity agreements on new innovations), however there is hope for small businesses, as the demand for biomass derived materials increases, and big business adopts these practises (and buys into the materials thus supporting the innovators behind them), making more options available + accessibly priced. We started the Sans Beast brand with progress over perfection, however it’s important for us to keep pushing, not just for animal free products but for materials that are ultimately biodegradable + as earth friendly as possible.
The challenge we all face in the handbags / shoes non leather space, is balancing the desire for fast biodegradability with robustness + longevity. Naturally, you don't want your products biodegrading before you're 'finished' with them, so getting that balance right in the development process is key. This is why polyurethane resin is so often used in the surface treatment, to ensure customer expectations are met regarding the longevity of an item.
The PETA list of leather alternatives is another great resource for discovering even more options in this space. We'd love to hear from anyone who has further materials or information, to add to the list - as mentioned, our list is not exhaustive, and we are aware there is so much to learn in this space as it evolves.
We continue to ask you to join the revolution + consider beauty without the beast.